Tuesday, December 14, 2010

The Green Human Project

The Green Human Project is to create a human that could live off of sunlight and photosynthesis. Our idea was to put implants in a human to work along with their normal energy creation.
View our presentation.

Monday, December 13, 2010

PKU Blog

1. What enzyme is most commonly defective in people with phenylketonuria?
The important metabolic enzyme, PAH, is missing from patients with PKU.

2. What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? (What is the substrate and what product is produced?)
Phenylalanine is produced at dangerous levels when this enzyme is catalyzed. It can cause mental retardation and epilepsy.

3. Describe the symptoms of phenylketonuria.
The symptoms of PKU are a smaller than usual head, mental retardation and epilepsy, a musty odor on the skin, and lighter than normal hair and skin.

4. What causes the symptoms of PKU, the lack of a substance or the buildup of one?
Phenylalanine is found in proteins of the food that we eat, and reacts badly with the PKU because the hindered enzyme is one of a metabolic nature.

5. How common is phenylketonuria? How is it treated?
PKU is not very common. Rates in Asian and Caucasians are rare but come up more in Irish and Turkish heritage families. It is treatable and is treated by a low protein diet that is carried out throughout the patient’s lifetime. 

Enzyme Lab




The first lab, we used Yeast and Peroxide. We found that the more yeast we used in the experiment, the larger the reaction. This is because the more enzymes (yeast) the more there were to change, so it created a larger reaction.

In the second lab we worked on, we used temperature differences. The warm mixture worked the best because it wasn't too hot, which hinders the expansion of enzymes, like a fever, and goes slower.

The last lab, the pH test, we found that the pH 2 worked the best because it wasn't harsh.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Photosynthesis "Dry Lab"

Materials Required for Lab
  • Water
  • Bromothymol blue (BTB)
  • 4 Straws
  • Aquarium snails
  • Elodeas (aquarium plant)
  • 4 beakers
You will need a light source and a dark space.

To observe Photosynthesis. 

  1. Fill the 4 beakers with water. Add BTB to one. Insert the straw and blow through straw to create bubbles. Observe the reaction (Carbon dioxide from exhaled breath and water creates carbonic acid, which causes a change in color.)
  2. Move to next beaker and add BTB. Add the aquarium snail. The snail will replace the straw's function. Observe reaction. (BTB turns yellow when exposed to acid.)
  3. To another beaker, add BTB and elodea, the plant will act like the snail and straw. Observe reaction. (Green plants photosynthesize in the light and respire all the time.)
  4. Use last beaker. Add BTB, snail, elodea. Observe in light. Put in dark for 3 hours and take out to observe if any changes have taken place. (BTB changes to a yellow color when exposed to acid and back to blue-green when returned to neutral pH.)
  1. What happens when you blow through the straw? Why?
  2. What do plants need to photosynthesize?
  3. What does carbon dioxide yield when chlorophyll and sunlight are present?

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Castor Beans- Ricin and RCA

I've been very interested in castor beans since the time that my Korean grandmother told me that it was ok to eat the leaves.

The poison Ricin is a protein extracted from the Castor Bean. One milligram will kill an adult. The ricin works by destroying ribosomes in cells. Castor beans also carry the poison RCA(Ricinus communis agglutinin). This poison makes the blood coagulate but dones not get past the intestinal wall. Though extremely dangerous, castor beans make beautiful plants. You only have to remember not to eat the beans.

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Cell Membranes!!

Cell Structure Prezi

Since Monday, I have learned that cells are the size of... well extremely small.

Play a game!

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins!

Carbohydrates are made from Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.

Lipids are made from a long chain of bonded carbons.

Proteins are made from Amino Acids, which contain carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.

1. What do Carbohydrates do for us?
     Carbohydrates break down glucose for energy. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles from the glucose that is not used.

2. Why are Lipids important?
     Lipids are fat.

3. Why are Proteins important?
      They are the main structural components for the body.

4. Concept Map for Carbohydrates.

Diffusion and Osmosis Lab

In the lab, Osmosis worked by pushing glucose inside of a cell out and replacing it by water.

Monday, November 8, 2010

Cystic Fibrosis Q&A (Cystic Fibrosis Web Quest)

1. What are the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
            - very salty tasting skin
            - persistant cough
            - frequent lung infections
            - wheezing or shortness of breath
            - poor growth/weight gain in spite of a good appetite
            - frequent greasy, bulky stool or difficulty in bowlel movement

2. How common is this disorder?
            -  There are 70,000 people diagnosed world wide. About 1,000 new cases of CF are diagnosed each year
3. How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed?
            - a gene from each parent
            - sweat test: measures the salt concentration in sweat

4. How is cystic fibrosis inherited? Does everyone who has a mutant gene for the protein have cystic fibrosis?
            - Cystic Fibrosis is inherited from the parent(s). It doesn’t have to be an active gene.

1. Explain the normal function of the protein that is defective in cystic fibrosis.
            - the protein should allow chlorine to exit.

2. What happens to this protein in CF patients and what are the consequences for the health of these individuals?
            - the protein is blocked and therefore no water is let in to moisten the building mucas. When the mucas dries it sticks and becomes harder to remove. This injures the individuals lungs.

1. Explain at least 3 treatments for the symptoms of cystic fibrosis.
            - Medications: Antibiotics, used to treat lung infections, Mucas-thinning drugs, reduce stickiness in mucas so you can cough it up easier, Bronchodilators, keep airways open and relaxed
            - Therapy: Chest Clapper, hand held divorce that mimics cupped hands clapping over ribs, Inflatable vest, vibrates at high frequency to loosen chest mucas, breathing device, performing specific breathing exercises while exhaling through device’s tube or mask
            - Surgery: Feeding tube, delivers nutrients, Lung transplant, in cases of severe breathing problems, Bowel surgery, emergancy bowel removal.

2. Discuss at least 3 ways for parents to help their children who have cystic fibrosis.
            -oral enzymes and better nutrition
            - drink lots of fluids
            -keep immunizations up to date
            - exercise

Thursday, November 4, 2010

Fluid Mosaic Poster Blog

Information used to understand the cell membrane :D - http://www.bothbrainsandbeauty.com/academic-discussions/biology-academic-discussions/fluid-mosaic-model-of-membrane-structure-475

Cell Membrane Presentation: http://prezi.com/31fa1r1ns27r/cell-membranes/

This week, I learned about the structure of a Cell Membrane and worked with Tenchita (http://tenchitacastaneda.blogspot.com/) to make a poster.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Acids, Bases and The pH Scale

I learned that on the pH Scale the acidity levels are backwards from how we normally see them, meaning the highest acidity level is 1 and the lowest (the bases) is 14.
What I Know:

1. What is neutral on the pH Scale?
Water, Milk. Anything lower than 7 is acidic and anything higher than 7 is basic.

2. Why is Water neutral?
Water is neutral because it has an equal balance of Hydrogen and Hydroxide atoms.

3. What dissolves more substances? Water or Acid?
Because water contains air it is always slightly acidic, consequently it dissolves more substances than acid.

Dead Simple Way To See Atomic Structure


In the article, they used a sheet of carbon one atom thick to view how water sticks to every surface. Heath, a professor of chemestry in California, and his colleagues found a way to pin down moving molecules by using Graphene (it's like chicken wire on an atomic scale). They found that is hugged the water molecules so tightly that they could see the atomic structure. The researchers have tested many other molecules and haven't found one that Graphene does not work on.

Friday, October 8, 2010

Concept Map! Carbohydrates!!


Concept Map on Carbohydrates

Monday, September 20, 2010

Acid in my Belly

The lab that Tenchita and I researched. We were playing with antacid tablets and vinegar. There were lots of fun results!

Friday, September 10, 2010

Monday, September 6, 2010

Learning How to Experiment on People

Note: This is an example of a Clinical Trial and is not complete or useful.

Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Study of the effects of K9rM on Teenage Werewolves who eat Neighbor Dogs

This study is NOT recruiting participants
Verified by KCrawford, September

Purpose: This study is to develop and collect efficient data in patients taking K9rM with serious hormone disorders. 

Condition: Hormones, Teenage        Intervention: Drug: K9rM          Phase: Phase II
                                                                               Drug: Placebo

The study started with 10 teenagers, an even number of boys and girls but ranging in ages from 13 to 17.  They began by dosing each of the participating subjects with either a placebo or the real medication.

What was done in the week of 8/30-9/3[This is the first week we've begun to work on Biology and have started by learning about Clinical Trials. They are a series of tests to see how a new medication or procedure works on people. We checked out the double-blind and placebo tests. This basically means that there were 2-3 different kinds of pills (the experimental medication, and a placebo[a pill that is blanker than blank], and a tested medication) being given randomly to the subjects so that neither the said subjects nor the team of people medicating them knows with pill they are taking. But not to worry there are certified doctors standing by to make sure no one dies! Besides the placebo they use a control to see how effective the drug is. The control is the standard at which the medication much reach.]